Journal of Animal Production Research 2023-01-07T08:10:46+00:00 Prof. G. T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Animal Production Research is the only journal that is published by National Animal Production Research Institute for the dissemination of information relevant to the improvement of animal production especially in Africa and the tropics. Materials considered for publication include Reports of original research, Review Articles, Book Review, News and Notes in the field of animal production.</p> INTERNAL ORGANS MORPHOMETRIC, SPERM AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF RABBIT BUCKS AS INFLUENCED BY BLACK SEED (Nigella sativa) 2023-01-05T17:33:35+00:00 O. O. Hammedand, O. A. Amao, <p>This study assessed internal organs morphometric, sperm indices and carcass characteristics of rabbit bucks as influenced by dietary supplementation of unprocessed black seed. A total of 40 weaned male rabbits (Chinchilla X New Zealand) were weigh-balanced into four dietary treatments of 10 replicates each. The rabbits were fed 5% of their body weight with diet containing 16% crude protein, 14% crude fibre and 2300 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy. The four experimental treatments consisted of unprocessed black seed at levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of feed in T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 84 days. At the end of the trial, 5 rabbits from each treatment were humanely sacrificed and the internal organs, and reproductive organs were carefully dissected for morphometric and semen evaluation respectively. Carcass indices were also assessed. The data collected were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result revealed a significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in carcass indices as the supplementation level increased up to 1%. A significantly (p&lt;0.05) similar trend was observed in all the internal organs morphometric. Significant (p&lt;0.05) increase was also observed in all the sperm variables (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and sperm viability) as black seed supplementation increased up to 1%. Supplementation of unprocessed black seed up to 1.5% in male rabbit’s diet has beneficial effects on internal organs morphometric, sperm and carcass characteristics. Dietary supplementation up to 1% however demonstrated the best response in terms of the aforementioned indices.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Animal Production Research TESTICULAR AND EPIDIDYMAL SPERM RESERVES AND SPERM PRODUCTION OF RABBIT BUCKS FED Moringa oleifera LEAF MEAL BASED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH GARLIC, GINGER OR BLACK PEPPER 2023-01-06T07:57:46+00:00 A. A. Mohammed, G. T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor, D. Zahraddeen, P. P. Barje, F. U. Samuel, <p>This study was carried out to evaluate testicular and epididymal weights, morphometry, sperm reserves and sperm production of rabbit bucks fed <em>Moringa oleifera </em>leaf meal (MOLM), MOLM supplemented with garlic (GR), ginger (GG) or black pepper (BP). The diet was formulated to contain 6% MOLM and supplemented with GR, GG or BP at 700g/100kg diet.&nbsp; The study used 25 mature (age between 6 and 7 months and average weight of 2196±204 g) cross bred (mixture of crosses from California, Chinchilla, New Zealand White and Dutch rabbit bucks and lasted for three months. Parameters monitored was total testis volume, testes density, complete testis sperm reserve, complete caudal epididymides sperm reserve, daily sperm production (DSP) and daily sperm production per gram parenchyma (DSP/gP). A completely randomized design was used and the data obtained was analyzed using the general linear model procedure of SAS while means separation was done using pairwise difference (Pdiff) method. Total testis volume and testes density were significantly (P&lt; 0.01) lower and higher respectively from the MOLM fed bucks than the supplemented groups. Complete testis sperm reserve was significantly (P&lt;0.05) lowest in bucks fed MOLM + GG diet than the other groups. Complete caudal epididymides sperm reserve was also significantly (P&lt;0.01) higher from MOLM fed bucks than the supplemented groups. DSP was significantly (P&lt;0.05) lowest from MOLM + GR fed bucks. DSP/gP was significantly (P&lt;0.01) highest from MOLM + BP fed bucks. It is recommended that to improve caudal epididymides, epididimydis sperm reserve and DSP/gP, rabbit bucks should be fed MOLM, MOLM + GG or MOLM + BP diets.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Animal Production Research EFFECT OF MASHED LIME FRUIT JUICE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ANTIBIOTICS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, VILLI MORPHOMETRY AND CAECAL MICROFLORA OF GROWING RABBITS 2022-12-30T14:27:39+00:00 D. T. Tsavkar, A. A. Sekoni, M. Afolayan, G. T. Iyeghe-Erakpotobor, <p>The experiment was conducted with thirty clinically healthy mixed breed growing male rabbits with average age of 11 weeks old. The rabbits were assigned to six dietary treatments (0, 500, 1000, 1500 2000 ml mashed lime fruit juice (MLFJ) per 100kg feed and Oxytetracycline; Oxyt) in completely randomized design. A basal diet formulated was designated as 0; to which 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ml of mashed lime fruit juice per 100kg feed was added to form treatments 500 - 2000 respectively while for Oxyt treatment, 55 g/100kg Oxytetracycline was added to the basal diet as recommended by the manufacturer. Treatments 0 MLFJ and Oxyt served as negative and positive controls respectively. Five growing rabbits were assigned to each dietary treatment and each rabbit served as a replicate. Parameters measured were acidity level, growth performance, villi morphometry and caecal bacterial cell numbers. The trial lasted for 56 days. The results showed lime fruit juice contained 0.6% ascorbic and 8.02% citric acids. Growth performance results showed improvement in final body weight being significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher on 1000 ml MLFJ than other treatments except 500 ml MLFJ and Oxyt treatments. Feed intake and feed conversion ratio of MLFJ groups was comparable to the controls. Feed cost per kg gain was better on the Oxyt and 1000 ml MLFJ groups and worst on 1500 and 2000 ml MLFJ groups. There was significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in all villi morphometric parameters measured except villi width. Villi surface area was significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower on 1000 ml but similar to 500 and 1500 ml MLFJ than the other treatments Villi perimeter and Villi height were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher on 1500 and 2000 ml than 500 and 1000 ml MLFJ groups but similar to 0 ml MLFJ and Oxyt groups. Crypt depth was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher on 1500 ml and Oxyt than all others treatment groups. Villi height/crypt depth ratio was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher on 2000 ml than 1000, 1500 ml MLFJ and Oxyt groups. The population of <em>lactobacilli and Bacilli spp</em> increased as MLFJ increased with the highest value (10.67 and 13.97 x10<sup>6 </sup>CFU/ml) for rabbits fed 1000 ml dietary MLFJ while those of <em>E. coli, Clostridium and Staphylococci spp</em> decreased as MLFJ increased. Results showed that rabbits could tolerate dietary mashed lime fruits juice up to 2000 ml/100kg without negatively affecting feed intake, weight gain, villi morphometric and caecal microflora. However, at 1500 and 2000 ml MLFJ, FC/kg G was increased which had a diminishing effect on the gross margin. It is therefore recommended that mashed lime fruit juice could be included in the diets of growing rabbits at 1000 ml/100kg feed.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Animal Production Research GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND DIGESTIBILITY OF WEANER PIGS FED DIETS SUBSTITUTED WITH FRESH CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) WASTE 2022-12-30T13:34:11+00:00 I. I. Ilaboya, J. I. Imouokhome, M. O. Omastuli, S. E. Imonikhe, J. Ogwum, <p>Twenty-seven mixed breeds of pigs were allotted to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design, to assess growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets substituted with fresh cabbage (<em>Brassica oleracea</em>) waste (CW). There were three replicates per treatment and 3 pigs per replicate. The control group (COG) was fed a ration containing 30% brewer dried grain and 70% concentrate. In contrast, the other two groups were fed the same diet but with 20 (CW-20) and 40 (CW-40) parts of the concentrate component substituted with cabbage waste on an equivalent basis. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The COG had the highest (P&lt;0.05) final weight. Feed intake was not significantly different (P&gt;0.05) among treatment means. Body weight change was not different (P&gt;0.05) from the COG and the CW-20 group. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased (P&lt;0.05) with increasing levels of CW with pigs in control having the least FCR. Cost of production was reduced for the substituted diets, but lowest in diet CW-40 (N9,882). Crude protein and ash digestibility were highest (P&lt;0.05) in pigs on the COG and CW-20 while crude fibre and fat digestibility were lowest in the COG and CW-40 respectively. It can be concluded, therefore, that 40% inclusion of cabbage waste can serve as an excellent supplemental feed resource for weaner pigs.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Production Research GROWTH RESPONSE AND COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF MONGREL WEANER RABBITS FED DIETARY INCLUSION OF BAMBARA NUT SIEVATE TOASTED AT DIFFERENT DURATIONS 2022-09-22T15:18:45+01:00 O. Uza B. Gege S. S. Emmanuel <p>A study to evaluate effect of toasting duration on proximate nutrient composition of Bambara nut sievate (BNS), growth response and cost-benefit of weaned mongrel rabbits fed dietary inclusion of BNS supplemented with Tridax procumbens. Raw BNS (5kg) was mixed with water (500 ml) and toasted thrice at three different durations (20, 30 and 40 minutes) at 50 -60<sup>°</sup>C. Thereafter, allowed to cool and analyzed for proximate nutrient composition, while metabolizable energy (ME) was calculated. Thirty (30) weaned rabbits (554.00 to 555.00 g) were allotted to 5 treatments of 6 rabbits with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a completely randomized design. Five diets were formulated using 20 kg each of BNS; T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 to contain 0, raw BNS, BNS toasted for 20, 30 and 40 minutes, respectively. Growth response data used were feed intake (DFI), weight gain, FCR and mortality. Cost- benefit analysis was evaluated using cost per kg diet, cost of feed consumed, cost per kg weight gain, total cost of production and profit. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS. Results revealed that Raw and BNS toasted for 40 minutes had the highest and similar ME (2625.94 Kcal/Kg) while BNS toasted for 30 minutes recorded the lowest ME (2260.87 kcal/kg). DFI of rabbits fed BNS diets was highest (71.17 g) and lowest (60.57 g), on the control diet. Rabbits fed raw BNS diet had zero (0%) mortality. Cost per kg diet (?203.34) was highest for rabbits on control diet. Rabbit fed diet containing BNS had the highest profit (?602.74). It can be concluded that toasting BNS for 40 minutes improved ME, inclusion of 20 kg of BNS in rabbits’ diet improved feed intake, healthiness (raw BNS) and profit.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Animal Production Research EFFECTS OF PAWPAW (Carica papaya) LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH PRFORMANCE OF JAPANESE QUAILS (Coturnix coturnix japonica) 2023-01-07T08:10:46+00:00 I. Inuwa, J. J. Omage, P. A. Ominisi, A. Sabo, <p>A six (6) weeks feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of pawpaw (<em>Carica papaya</em>) leaf meal (PLM) on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Japanese quails. A total of two hundred and seventy (270) Japanese quail birds were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with three replicates of 18 birds each in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Five experimental diets were formulated in which diet 1 served as control (0 % PLM), while diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 5, 10, 15 and 20 % pawpaw leaf meal respectively. Water and feed were offered <em>ad-libitum. </em>Data collected on growth parameters and nutrient digestibility were subjected to analysis of variance using general linear model of SAS. The result showed that digestibility of dry matter was significantly (p&lt;0.05) better (75.62%) in birds fed 5% PLM based diet when compared to other treatment groups (0, 10, 15, and 20 % PLM based diets) which were having similar percentage nutrient digestibility (70.94, 71.06, 71.14 and 70.96% respectively).&nbsp; Birds on 5% PLM based diet also had significantly (p&lt;0.05) better final body weight (160.13 g/bird), daily weight gain (3.80 g/bird), daily feed intake (16.81 g/bird) and age at first egg (39 days) when compared to other treatment groups. However, the control group (0% PLM) had better feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 3.10 and feed cost per kg gain (N388.12) when compared to other treatments (5, 10, 15, and 20% PLM based diet) which were having 4.04, 4.12, 4.71, 5.09 FCR and N461.07, N492.74, N507.60, and N521.33 feed cost per kg gain respectively.&nbsp; It was concluded that inclusion of PLM at 5% is optimal for improved nutrient utilization and growth performance of Japanese quails.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Animal Production Research PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PREFERENCE EVALUATION OF ENSILED CORNCOB-LAYERS DROPPING BY YANKASA RAMS 2023-01-05T17:17:40+00:00 M. B. Haula, S. B. Abdu, H. Y. Adamu, <p>This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ensiling graded levels of corncob and layers dropping (CCLD) on fermentative and nutritional characteristics of ensiled CCLD, short time intake and preference by Yankasa rams. Ground corncob was ensiled with poultry dropping in a ratio of 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20, each ratio serves as treatment. The physical characteristics, pH and chemical composition of the ensiled CCLD were determined after 21 days of ensiling. Five Yankasa rams aged between 10 – 12 months with live weight ranged between 17 – 20 kg were used to evaluate acceptability and preference of the ensiled CCLD in a cafeteria feeding style in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data obtained were subjected to analysis of SAS and significant means were compared. The chemical content ranges between 9.12-10.84%. The changes in fibre fractions indicated that neutral detergent fibre ranges from 15.60-16.81% and acid detergent fibre ranges from 9.92-22.79% with increasing level of corncob in the mixture. Percent acid detergent lignin also ranges between 12.61-19.03%. The pH values ranged between 4.4-4.68. CCLD mixture with 70:30 ratio has a pleasant smell. Ensiled CCLD score revealed that the best physical attributes were attained at 70:30 and 80:20% inclusion levels. Percent preference of Yankasa sheep significantly (P&lt;0.05) varied from 18.85 – 36.22 % and the order of preference was 70:30 &gt; 80:20&gt; 60:40 &gt; 50:50. The coefficient of preference (CoP) and percent preference indicated that ensiled CCLD with 70:30 and 80:20 were more acceptable and preferred by Yankasa rams than the other graded levels. This finding suggest that ensiling corncob with layers dropping improves its nutritive value hence, it is recommended that farmers could ensile corncob with layers dropping at the ratio of 70:30 and 80:20 to the extent that it can be utilized as an alternative livestock feed.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Production Research EVALUATION OF OPTIMUM LEVELS OF BIOTRONIC® SE AS ALTERNATIVE FOR OXYTETRACYCLINE ON PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKENS 2022-12-30T13:54:59+00:00 H. W. Kehinde, R. S. Makama, P. A. Onimisi, <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of optimum levels of Biotronic <sup>® </sup>SE as an alternative to the use of Oxytetracycline on growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility of broiler chickens. A total of 396 Ross Day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six (6) dietary treatments with 22 chicks/replicate in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: Treatment one was the negative control (NC) diet without Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE, while treatments 2, 3, 4, 5 contained 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500g Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE and treatment 6 positive control (PC) contained 100g Oxytretracycline. The diets were formulated to meet standard requirements for starter and finisher broiler chickens. Feed and water were given to the birds <em>ad libitum</em> for the 8-weeks experimental period. Growth parameters measured were average body weight gain, feed intake<strong>, </strong><a href=";cat=&amp;ascicat=ALL&amp;Submit=Search&amp;keyword=feed+conversion"><strong>feed conversion</strong></a> ratio, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility percent. The results at the starter phase showed that 500g Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE supplementation (P&lt;0.05) had (1.7) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed cost per kilogram gain (?151.42) values. The finisher phase result showed no significant (P&gt;0.05) difference in weight gain. Birds on 400g Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE had a lower (P&gt;0.05) FCR (2.02) and feed cost per kilogram gain ((?1159.36). The dressing percentages of carcass were similar both in the 500g Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE and Oxytetracycline treatments. Prime cuts: breast, drumstick and wings were better in birds on diets containing 400g Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE. The crude protein values (86.54, 89.31 and 94.50 %) for nutrient digestibility was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in the 200, 300 and 400g Biotronic<sup>® </sup>SE groups respectively. The crude fibre (76.43 %) and ether extract (89.82 %) values were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower across the treatment groups. The use of Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE as growth promoter gave a result comparable to the antibiotic treatment and better than the negative control. Therefore, Biotronic<sup>®</sup> SE can be use at 500g /100kg at the starter phase and 400g/kg at finisher phase as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler diets.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Production Research RESISTANCE OF NON-TYPHOIDAL SALMONELLA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM BROILER PRODUCTS TO ANTIBIOTICS 2023-01-06T07:21:50+00:00 R. Y. Olobatoke, O. Ruzvidzo, S. Mulugeta, <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of non-typhoidal <em>Salmonella</em> strains (NTS) isolated from broiler products marketed in North-West Province, South Africa, to various antibiotics. A total of sixty (60) NTS isolates recovered from raw broiler products and confirmed by PCR were evaluated for antimicrobial resistance by disk diffusion method, using a panel of ten antibiotics. The NTS isolates that were identified and used in this study include <em>S.typhimurium</em> (n = 20), <em>S. enteritidis</em> (n = 20) and <em>S. newport</em> (n = 20). The antibiotics used were ampicillin (10 µg), chloramphenicol (30 µg), ciprofloxacin (5 µg), amikacin (30 µg), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole (25 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) cefotaxime (30 µg), meropenem (10 µg), gentamicin (10 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg). All the strains tested were resistant to two or more antibiotics. However, all isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, meropenem, gentamycin and amikacin.Whereas, all were resistant to tetracycline, resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxasole, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol was low, being 8.3, 13.3 and 20% respectively. Multi-drug resistance was discovered only in nine <em>S.typhimurium</em> strains, representing 15% of the tested isolates. Analysis of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR), revealed seven phenotypes, with resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin as the most common pattern. The observations of this study indicate that NTS strains isolated from broiler products are resistant to multiple antibiotics, and may pose significant health risks to the consumers.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Production Research EFFECTIVENESS OF MODIFIED PIN-IN-FIBERGLASS CAST IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TRANSVERSE MID-SHAFT TIBIA FRACTURE IN NIGERIAN INDIGENOUS BITCHES RADIOLOGICALLY 2022-12-30T13:44:59+00:00 E. M. Esievo, L. O. Esievo, A. A. Bada, <p>This study investigated the effectiveness of pin-in fiberglass cast in the management of transverse mid-shaft tibia fractures in bitches using radiograph. Three (3), 7-month-old apparently healthy female indigenous bitches of varied weights (8-10 kg) were acquired from Samaru, Zaria for this study. They were housed in the dog kennels of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, fed with homemade and restaurant meals (Rice, pap, fish and bones) twice daily and water was provided <em>ad libitum. </em>The bitches were acclimatized for 3 weeks prior to the commencement of the study.&nbsp; The bitches were sedated using atropine sulphate (0.02 mg/kg) and Xylazine (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously and intramuscularly respectively. Anesthesia was induced using 2% Lidocaine hydrochloride (7.5 mg/kg) into the epidural space. Transverse mid-shaft tibia fractures in the bitches were manually created and reduced using Pin-in-fibreglass casting and monitored radiographically for eight weeks post –operative. Early ambulation was achieved within a period of 24 hours post-surgery. Maximum callus formation was achieved in the 7<sup>th</sup> week post-surgery and complete facture healing was attained at week 8 post-surgery. Modified Pin-In-fibreglass cast offered an excellent functional and cosmetic appearance. It was concluded that excellent reduction of transverse mid-shaft tibia fracture in bitches could be achieved using pin-in-fibreglass cast.</p> 2021-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Production Research ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL CHICKEN PRODUCTION IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA 2023-01-05T17:06:57+00:00 R. Y. Olobatoke, E. Mobayo, <p>The paper provides valuable guide in defining relevant issues for addressing local chicken production system and identifying constraints of production in the study area. The study was carried out in Ijumu Local Government Area of Kogi State. The study made use of primary data which were obtained through well-structured questionnaires and oral interview. Socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers showed that majority of the respondants were males within the risk taker age group (41 –45 yrs), married and either had primary education or no formal education at all. Main production characteristics included small-sized flock, poor feeding schedule, selection of eggs for hatching from existing flocks resulting in in-breeding and lack of proper vaccination against diseases. The production system was also constrained by low chick survival rate, high disease prevalence particularly Newcastle disease during harmattan, lack of veterinary assistance and marketing problems such as inadequate on-farm patronage. In spite of the constraints, most of the farmers expressed satisfaction with their production incomes. This shows that local chicken production plays a significant role in the life of the smallholder farmers in the study area. There is therefore no doubt that improvements in the areas of health and management practices will go a long way in improving the efficiency of the enterprise as well as the income of the farmers.</p> 2023-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Animal Production Research